It is the position of the American Dietetic Association (ADA) that the best nutritional strategy for promoting optimal health and reducing the risk of chronic disease is to wisely choose a wide variety of foods. Additional nutrients from fortified foods and/or supplements can help some people meet their nutritional needs as specified by science-based nutrition standards such as the Dietary Reference Intakes. Dietetics professionals are trained to assess dietary adequacy as well as the need for dietary modification. This position paper addresses increasing the nutrient density of foods or diets through fortification or supplementation when diets fail to deliver consistently adequate amounts of vitamins and minerals. The discussion presents points to consider that relate to both public health and individual applications. Many resources may be used to help guide the dietetics professional to determine responsible, evidence-based recommendations relating to nutrient fortification or supplementation.