Fluorouracil (5-FU) is widely used in the treatment of colorectal cancer. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) may play a central role in the action of 5-FU, an inhibitor of thymidylate synthase, by converting 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate to 5-methyltetrahydrofolate. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether two polymorphisms in the MTHFR gene (677C>T and 1298 A>C) could be used as genomic predictors of clinical response to fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy (in combination with irinotecan or oxaliplatin). Ninety-four patients diagnosed with metastatic colorectal cancer and undergoing 5-FU-containing chemotherapy as a first line treatment were studied. The results suggest that the MTHFR genotype cannot be considered as an independent factor of outcome in colorectal cancer patients under 5-FU-based chemotherapy.