Section Arachis is the largest of nine sections in the genus Arachis and includes domesticated peanut, A. hypogaea L. Most species are diploids (x = 10) with two tetraploids and a few aneuploids. Three genome types have been recognized in this section (A, B and D), but the genomes are not well characterized and relationships of several newly described species are uncertain. To clarify genomic relationships in section Arachis, cytogenetic information and molecular data from amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and the trnT-F plastid region were used to provide an additional insight into genome composition and species relationships. Cytogenetic information supports earlier observations on genome types of A. cruziana, A. herzogii, A. kempff-mercadoi and A. kuhlmannii but was inconclusive about the genome composition of A. benensis, A. hoehnei, A. ipaensis, A. palustris, A. praecox and A. williamsii. An AFLP dendrogram resolved species into four major clusters and showed A. hypogaea grouping closely with A. ipaensis and A. williamsii. Sequence data of the trnT-F region provided genome-specific information and showed for the first time that the B and D genomes are more closely related to each other than to the A genome. Integration of information from cytogenetics and biparentally and maternally inherited genomic regions show promise in understanding genome types and relationships in Arachis.