Aging can be defined as the condition where stressors are not counteracted by protective functions, leading to a dysregulation in development. These changes can be translated into decrements in neuronal functioning accompanied by behavioral declines, such as decreases in motor and cognitive performance, in both humans and animals. When coupled with genetic alterations, the ultimate expression of these changes is seen in diseases such as Alzheimer disease (AD). This association will be discussed in the last section of this chapter. In this review we will describe motor and cognitive deficits in behavior due to aging, and show how these deficits are related to increased vulnerability to oxidative stress, inflammation or signaling. Importantly, using muscarinic receptors as examples, we will also try to show that the sensitivity to these insults may be differentially expressed among neurotransmitter receptor subtypes.