Alpha-isoenzyme of alcohol dehydrogenase from monkey liver. Cloning, expression, mechanism, coenzyme, and substrate specificity

J Biol Chem. 1992 Jun 25;267(18):12592-9.


The cDNA for the alpha-isoenzyme from rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) liver was cloned and expressed in yeast. The alpha-isoenzymes of human and monkey liver alcohol dehydrogenase differ from the other human and horse liver enzymes in having Met57, Ala93, and Val116 instead of Leu57, Phe93, and Leu116 in the substrate binding pocket and Gly47 instead of Arg47 near the pyrophosphate moiety of the coenzyme. The effects of these differences on the kinetic mechanism, substrate specificity, and coenzyme binding were studied with the purified, recombinant monkey alpha-isoenzyme (MmADH alpha) and mutated enzymes with Gly47 substituted with His or Arg. The mechanism appears to be random for the binding of NAD+ and ethanol and ordered for NADH and acetaldehyde, with formation of a dead-end enzyme-NADH-ethanol complex. MmADH alpha reacts 130-fold slower (V/K) with ethanol and 3-25-fold slower with 2-methyl alcohols but 20-fold faster with cyclohexanol, as compared with horse (Equus caballus) liver EE isoenzyme (EqADH). MmADH alpha is stereoselective for the R isomer of 2-butanol, whereas EqADH favors the S isomer. Both enzymes have comparable reactivity with larger primary alcohols. MmADH alpha is more reactive with secondary alcohols and has highest activity with cyclohexanol. However, it does not react with steroids such as 5 beta-androstane-17 beta-ol-3-one. Molecular modeling suggests that the differences between MmADH alpha and EqADH are a result of the substitution of Ala for Phe93 and Thr for Ser48. MmADH alpha binds NAD+ most rapidly when a group with a pK of 7.4 is unprotonated, implicating His51 in this reaction. The G47R substitution decreased the dissociation constants for NAD+ and NADH and turnover numbers only about 2-fold, whereas the G47H substitution increased dissociation constants 7-14-fold and turnover numbers 4-fold. A basic residue at position 47 is not crucial for activity, as multiple interactions determine coenzyme affinity.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Alcohol Dehydrogenase / chemistry
  • Alcohol Dehydrogenase / genetics*
  • Alcohol Dehydrogenase / metabolism
  • Animals
  • Base Sequence
  • Binding Sites
  • Cloning, Molecular
  • Coenzymes / metabolism
  • Cyclohexanols / pharmacology
  • Cyclohexanones / pharmacology
  • DNA
  • Gene Expression
  • Humans
  • Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
  • Isoenzymes / genetics*
  • Isoenzymes / metabolism
  • Kinetics
  • Liver / enzymology*
  • Macaca mulatta
  • Models, Molecular
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Protein Conformation
  • Substrate Specificity


  • Coenzymes
  • Cyclohexanols
  • Cyclohexanones
  • Isoenzymes
  • cyclohexanone
  • DNA
  • Alcohol Dehydrogenase

Associated data

  • GENBANK/M81807
  • GENBANK/M86614
  • GENBANK/M86615
  • GENBANK/M86616
  • GENBANK/M86617
  • GENBANK/M86618
  • GENBANK/M86619
  • GENBANK/M86620
  • GENBANK/X64069
  • GENBANK/X64070