Osteoprotegerin and RANKL regulate bone resorption, density, geometry and strength

Curr Opin Pharmacol. 2005 Dec;5(6):618-25. doi: 10.1016/j.coph.2005.06.005. Epub 2005 Sep 26.

Abstract

Osteoprotegerin (OPG) and receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL) are dominant regulators of bone resorption. Many hormones, cytokines and growth factors mediate bone resorption by altering the ratio of RANKL to OPG. RANKL and OPG expression is also altered in numerous bone diseases, and these changes can reflect disease etiology or compensatory responses to disease. RANKL stimulates osteoclast formation, function and survival, and each of these effects is inhibited by OPG. OPG suppresses bone resorption and increases the density, area and strength of both cancellous and cortical bone. Denosumab (AMG 162), a fully human monoclonal antibody to RANKL, shares the pharmacologic attributes of OPG but has a significantly longer half-life that allows less frequent administration.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use
  • Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized
  • Bone Density*
  • Bone Resorption / etiology*
  • Carrier Proteins / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Carrier Proteins / physiology*
  • Denosumab
  • Glycoproteins / physiology*
  • Humans
  • Membrane Glycoproteins / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Membrane Glycoproteins / physiology*
  • Osteoclasts / physiology
  • Osteoprotegerin
  • RANK Ligand
  • Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-kappa B
  • Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear / physiology*
  • Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor / physiology*

Substances

  • Antibodies, Monoclonal
  • Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized
  • Carrier Proteins
  • Glycoproteins
  • Membrane Glycoproteins
  • Osteoprotegerin
  • RANK Ligand
  • Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-kappa B
  • Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear
  • Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor
  • TNFRSF11A protein, human
  • TNFRSF11B protein, human
  • TNFSF11 protein, human
  • Denosumab