Comparison of transthoracic versus transesophageal echocardiography for detection of right-to-left atrial shunting using agitated saline contrast

Am J Cardiol. 2005 Oct 1;96(7):1007-10. doi: 10.1016/j.amjcard.2005.05.061.


Agitated saline contrast studies (bubble studies) can be performed with either transthoracic or transesophageal echocardiography for the detection of right-to-left atrial shunts. The echocardiograms of 94 consecutive patients who underwent saline contrast studies with transthoracic and transesophageal approaches were reviewed to compare the ability of these modalities to detect right-to-left atrial shunts.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Contrast Media*
  • Echocardiography*
  • Echocardiography, Transesophageal*
  • Female
  • Heart Septal Defects, Atrial / diagnostic imaging*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Microbubbles
  • Middle Aged
  • Sensitivity and Specificity
  • Sodium Chloride*


  • Contrast Media
  • Sodium Chloride