Human bone-marrow mesenchymal stem cells have an important role in the repair of musculoskeletal tissues by migrating from the bone marrow into the injured site and undergoing differentiation. We investigated the use of autologous human serum as a substitute for fetal bovine serum in the ex vivo expansion medium to avoid the transmission of dangerous transfectants during clinical reconstruction procedures. Autologous human serum was as effective in stimulating growth of bone-marrow stem cells as fetal bovine serum. Furthermore, medium supplemented with autologous human serum was more effective in promoting motility than medium with fetal bovine serum in all cases. Addition of B-fibroblast growth factor to medium with human serum stimulated growth, but not motility. Our results suggest that autologous human serum may provide sufficient ex vivo expansion of human bone-marrow mesenchymal stem cells possessing multidifferentiation potential and may be better than fetal bovine serum in preserving high motility.