The male predominance of oesophageal adenocarcinoma might be explained by oestrogen protection in women. If true, female patients might have sex hormonal disturbances rendering impaired fertility. The influence of childbearing on the risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma was investigated in a Swedish population-based case (n=63) -control (n=141) study. Childless women were not at increased risk compared to childbearing (OR=0.82; 95% CI=0.25-2.72), as neither were women with 0-1 children compared to women with at least three children (OR=0.93; 95% CI=0.35-2.49). In conclusion, we found no inverse association between childbearing and oesophageal adenocarcinoma.