The influences of composition and roasting conditions on acrylamide formation in almonds and hazelnuts were investigated. Eighteen samples of almonds originating from the U.S. and Europe were analyzed for sugars and free amino acids, and acrylamide formed during roasting was determined. Asparagine was the main free amino acid in raw almonds and correlated with the acrylamide content of dark roasted almonds. Roasting temperature was another key factor and had a very strong influence on acrylamide formation. Almonds of European origin contained significantly less free asparagine and formed significantly less acrylamide during roasting as compared to the almonds from the U.S. Roasted hazelnuts contained very little acrylamide because of the low content of free asparagine in the raw nut. Reducing sugars, although being consumed much faster than free amino acids in both types of nuts, were not decisive for the extent of acrylamide formation during roasting.