It seems that patient's knowledge about ophthalmologist's work is very insufficient, especially about what type of examination should be undertaken for refraction condition during the "simple" eye check-up and which serious systemic diseases could be discovered thorough eye examinations. The aim of the study was to determine patients' knowledge about ophthalmologist examinations during the check-up for refraction condition, knowledge about differences between ophthalmologists and opticians, main sources of patients' ophthalmologic cognition and the main reasons for coming to special locations. Patients (311) were examined by applying the questionnaire, immediately before the eye check-up at three various refraction units. Statistical analysis used Chi-square test and test of significance between proportions, except for patients' age where Student t-test was used. Differences were statistically significant at p = 0.05. The findings show that the patients' knowledge about eye examination during the check-ups for refraction abnormalities was not satisfactory. Twenty-two percent (22%) of examined patients did not know the differences between ophthalmologists and opticians and 16% believed that after computer testing of refraction further ophthalmologic examinations were not necessary. The main sources of medical cognition were the mass media while twenty percent (20%) of the participating patients named doctor's lectures as the source of their cognition. This study revealed that a lot of work needs to be done to improve patients' education and indirectly for better screening of very serious systemic diseases and blind threatening diseases which could be discovered during the first visit for spectacle prescription.