We examined the regional pattern of Lewy pathology in brains of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) to clarify whether Lewy pathology uniformly progresses or not. Thirty-five autopsied DLB cases were examined using alpha-synuclein-immunohistochemistry, and the regional degree of Lewy pathology in the brainstem, diencephalon and cerebral cortex was quantitatively evaluated. Consequently, we found that the regional pattern of Lewy pathology differed according to the pathological subtype, and was divided into three types: type 1 showed a brainstem-predominant pattern, type 2 was almost equal for the brainstem and cerebral cortex, and type 3 showed a cerebral cortex-predominant pattern. The limbic type/pure and common forms were mainly composed of type 1, whereas the neocortical type/common and Alzheimer's disease (AD) forms were mainly composed of type 3. These findings suggest the possibility that Lewy pathology of the limbic type/pure and common forms mainly progresses from the brainstem to the cerebrum, whereas that of the neocortical type/common and AD forms mainly progresses from the cerebrum to the brainstem. Cases with type 1 Lewy pathology mainly developed parkinsonism, whereas those with type 3 Lewy pathology mainly developed dementia. This corresponded to most of the limbic type/ pure and common forms which developed parkinsonism, whereas most of the neocortical type/common and AD forms developed dementia. Type 1 cases may thus be clinically diagnosed as having Parkinson's disease (PD) with dementia. These findings suggest that PD has clinico-pathological continuity with DLB, and that the regional pattern of Lewy pathology is not uniform.