We report the outcome of humeral head surface replacement hemiarthroplasty performed at our institution using the Copeland prosthesis. We followed 56 shoulders (52 patients) for a mean of 34.2 months (range, 24-63 months). Two were lost to follow-up, and there were six deaths unrelated to the shoulder surgery. Preoperative diagnoses in the remainder were osteoarthritis (20), rheumatoid arthritis (26), rotator cuff tear arthropathy (1), and post-traumatic arthrosis (1). The mean age was 68 years. Constant scores for the whole group improved from a mean preoperative score of 16.4 (range, 8-36) to 54.0 (range, 20-83) at last follow-up (P < .05). Three cases underwent subsequent arthroscopic subacromial decompression for impingement symptoms. One case required revision for aseptic loosening to a stemmed implant. Contained, nonprogressive osteolysis was seen in 2 cases. One periprosthetic humeral neck fracture was managed successfully nonoperatively. These results are comparable to those obtained with a modern stemmed hemiarthroplasty and are similar to Copeland's own series.