Glycogen storage disease type Ia (GSD-Ia) is caused by a deficiency in glucose-6-phosphatase-alpha (G6Pase-alpha), a nine-transmembrane domain, endoplasmic reticulum-associated protein expressed primarily in the liver and kidney. Previously, we showed that infusion of an adeno-associated virus (AAV) serotype 2 vector carrying murine G6Pase-alpha (AAV2-G6Pase-alpha) into neonatal GSD-Ia mice failed to sustain their life beyond weaning. We now show that neonatal infusion of GSD-Ia mice with an AAV serotype 1-G6Pase-alpha (AAV1-G6Pase-alpha) or AAV serotype 8-G6Pase-alpha (AAV8-G6Pase-alpha) results in hepatic expression of the G6Pase-alpha transgene and markedly improves the survival of the mice. However, only AAV1-G6Pase-alpha can achieve significant renal transgene expression. A more effective strategy, in which a neonatal AAV1-G6Pase-alpha infusion is followed by a second infusion at age one week, provides sustained expression of a complete, functional, G6Pase-alpha system in both the liver and kidney and corrects the metabolic abnormalities in GSD-Ia mice for the 57 week length of the study. This effective use of gene therapy to correct metabolic imbalances and disease progression in GSD-Ia mice holds promise for the future of gene therapy in humans.