Printing of protein microarrays via a capillary-free fluid jetting mechanism

Proteomics. 2005 Nov;5(16):4138-44. doi: 10.1002/pmic.200401294.


Current proteomics experiments rely upon printing techniques such as ink jet, pin, or quill arrayers that were developed for the creation of cDNA microarrays. These techniques often do not meet the requirements needed for successful spotting of proteins to perform high-throughput, array-based proteomic profiling. Biological laser printing (BioLP) is a spotting technology that does not rely on solid pins, quill pins, or capillary-based fluidics. The non-contact mechanism of BioLP utilizes a focused laser pulse to transfer protein solutions, thereby eliminating the potential for orifice clogging, air bubbles, and unnecessary volume loss potentially encountered in commercially available spotting technologies. The speed and spot-to-spot reproducibility of BioLP is comparable to other techniques, while the minimum spot diameter and volume per printed droplet is significantly less at 30 microm and approximately 500 fL, respectively. The transfer of fluid by BioLP occurs through a fluid jetting mechanism, as observed by high-speed images of the printing process. Arraying a solution of BSA with subsequent immunodetection demonstrates the reproducible spotting of protein in an array format with CVs of <3%. Printing of the enzyme alkaline phosphatase followed by a positive reaction with a colorimetric substrate demonstrates that functional protein can be spotted using this laser-based printer.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Alkaline Phosphatase / analysis
  • Animals
  • Cattle
  • Lasers
  • Nanotechnology
  • Protein Array Analysis / instrumentation*
  • Protein Array Analysis / methods
  • Serum Albumin, Bovine / analysis


  • Serum Albumin, Bovine
  • Alkaline Phosphatase