Stage-dependent increase of orosomucoid and zinc-alpha2-glycoprotein in urinary bladder cancer

Proteomics. 2005 Nov;5(16):4296-304. doi: 10.1002/pmic.200402005.


Identification and characterization of biomarkers in body fluids such as serum or urine serve as a basis for early detection of diseases, particularly of cancer. Performing 2-DE with subsequent MS analyses, conventional immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry we identified two proteins, orosomucoid (ORM) and human zinc-alpha(2)-glycoprotein (ZAG), which were increased in the urine samples of patients with bladder cancer in comparison to the urine samples of healthy volunteers. The highest amount of both proteins was found in invasive bladder cancer stages such as pT2-3. Immunohistochemical studies showed ORM in inflammatory cells but also in endothelial cells of blood vessels within or adjacent to the tumor area and in part of the tumor cells. ZAG was prominent in tumor cells at the tumor invasion front. Additionally, ZAG was localized at the luminal surface of normal urothelium, which switches to the basal side when a superficial papillary tumor was observed. These results show that we have been able to identify two new proteins that may be related to the development of superficial bladder cancer and to its switch to an invasive phenotype.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism*
  • Biomarkers, Tumor / urine
  • Cell Line
  • Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional
  • Humans
  • Orosomucoid / metabolism*
  • Orosomucoid / urine
  • Proteome / metabolism*
  • Reference Values
  • Seminal Plasma Proteins / metabolism*
  • Seminal Plasma Proteins / urine
  • Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization
  • Urinary Bladder / metabolism
  • Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / metabolism*
  • Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / pathology


  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Orosomucoid
  • Proteome
  • Seminal Plasma Proteins
  • Zn-alpha-2-glycoprotein