Peripheral neuropathies are characterized by asymmetrical slowly progressive weakness with no upper motor neuron signs, and can occur either with or without pain. Due to poor knowledge of the disease mechanisms, available pain treatment is very limited. Because of the difficulties and invasiveness involved when performing direct analysis on peripheral and CNS, pathological markers can be searched for in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) as an alternative. To investigate pain mechanisms in peripheral neuropathy and find diagnostic markers, CSF samples were analyzed by a differential expression proteomic approach. We studied CSF from: neuropathic patients with pain (PN), without pain (NPN) and healthy controls (CN). 2-DE analysis showed ten protein spots differentially expressed, and six of these were identified by MS. In NPN patients we found an expression level decrease of three pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) protein isoforms. Immunoblot with a specific antibody revealed the presence of additional PEDF isoforms not highlighted by differential expression analysis. Fucose residues on the oligosaccharide chain were found only in the isoforms down regulated in NPN patients. Considered as PEDF has important neurobiological effects, it might be considered an interesting pathology marker.