[There is a strong evidence that professional boxing results in chronic brain damage. The more head punches during a boxer's career, the bigger is the risk]

Lakartidningen. 2005 Sep;102(36):2468-70, 2472-5.
[Article in Swedish]


The clinical symptomatology and pathogenic mechanisms of chronic traumatic brain injury associated with boxing (CTBI-B) is reviewed. This syndrome is also known as punch drunk syndrome or dementia pugilistica. Since even milder forms of CTBI-B are rare among amateur boxers, we make a distinction between amateur and professional boxing throughout the review. Focus is also set on the interesting similarities in neurochemical changes and pathogenic mechanisms between CTBI-B, acute traumatic brain injury (e.g. road traffic accidents) and Alzheimer's disease.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Alzheimer Disease / diagnosis
  • Alzheimer Disease / etiology*
  • Alzheimer Disease / psychology
  • Boxing / injuries*
  • Brain / diagnostic imaging
  • Brain / pathology
  • Brain Damage, Chronic / diagnosis
  • Brain Damage, Chronic / etiology*
  • Brain Damage, Chronic / psychology
  • Brain Injury, Chronic / diagnosis
  • Brain Injury, Chronic / etiology*
  • Brain Injury, Chronic / psychology
  • Dementia / diagnosis
  • Dementia / etiology*
  • Dementia / physiopathology
  • Humans
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Syndrome
  • Tomography, X-Ray Computed