In vitro lymphoproliferative responses to foreign histocompatibility antigens are phylogenetically restricted. Responses occur most readily to allogeneic or closely related xenogeneic leucocytes, but not to unrelated xenogeneic cells. Specific cytotoxic T cell responses to foreign histocompatibility antigens show the same phylogenetic restriction. This lack of xenoreactivity is not due to a lack of precursor cells for the xenoantigens; guinea-pig lymphocytes, although normally unresponsive to mouse antigens, have a similar precursor frequency for these antigens as do lymphocytes of allogeneic mouse strains. Specific cytotoxic responses of guinea-pig lymphocytes to mouse antigens can be generated if a factor released from con A stimulated guinea-pig spleen cells is added to the culture medium. The factor produced by con A-activated spleen cells (CS) is also phylogenetically restricted in its action; CS must be obtained from animals homologous with the donor of the responding lymphocytes.