Systematic review: tuberculous peritonitis--presenting features, diagnostic strategies and treatment

Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2005 Oct 15;22(8):685-700. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2036.2005.02645.x.


The peritoneum is one of the most common extrapulmonary sites of tuberculous infection. Peritoneal tuberculosis remains a significant problem in parts of the world where tuberculosis is prevalent. Increasing population migration, usage of more potent immunosuppressant therapy and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome epidemic has contributed to a resurgence of this disease in regions where it had previously been largely controlled. Tuberculous peritonitis frequently complicates patients with underlying end-stage renal or liver disease that further adds to the diagnostic difficulty. The diagnosis of this disease, however, remains a challenge because of its insidious nature, the variability of its presentation and the limitations of available diagnostic tests. A high index of suspicion is needed whenever confronted with unexplained ascites, particularly in high-risk patients. Based on a systematic review of the literature, we recommend: tuberculous peritonitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of all patients presenting with unexplained lymphocytic ascites and those with a serum-ascites albumin gradient (SAAG) of <11 g/L; culture growth of Mycobacterium of the ascitic fluid or peritoneal biopsy as the gold standard test; further studies to determine the role of polymerase chain reaction, ascitic adenosine deaminase and the BACTEC radiometric system for acceleration of mycobacterial identification as means of improving the diagnostic yield; increasing utilization of ultrasound and computerized tomographic scan for the diagnosis and as a guidance to obtain peritoneal biopsies; low threshold for diagnostic laparoscopy; treatment for 6 months with the first-line antituberculous drugs (isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol and pyrazinamide) in uncomplicated cases.

Publication types

  • Review
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Algorithms
  • Antitubercular Agents / therapeutic use
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Laparoscopy
  • Male
  • Peritonitis, Tuberculous / diagnosis*
  • Peritonitis, Tuberculous / drug therapy
  • Peritonitis, Tuberculous / epidemiology
  • Tomography, X-Ray Computed


  • Antitubercular Agents