The aim of this study was to investigate how factors in the workplace and personal factors are related to the frequency with which people with diabetes perform self-management activities and the degree to which they do or do not experience the performing of self-management activities as a burden. Two hundred and ninety-two employees with insulin-treated diabetes completed questionnaires on socio-demographic and illness-related background variables, work experience, diabetes self-efficacy, social support outside of work, coping styles and self-management activities. The results indicate that employees who reported a high workload were more likely to perceive injecting insulin as a burden. The level of social support was positively related to the frequency of dietary self-management in type 2 diabetes and negatively related to the sense of being burdened by dietary self-management in type 1 diabetes. With respect to personal factors, we found that a diabetes avoidance coping style was associated particularly with infrequent blood glucose monitoring and a high sense of being burdened by blood glucose monitoring. Individuals with a low level of self-efficacy were more likely to perceive all types of self-management activities as a burden. These results may guide health professionals when counseling individuals with diabetes.