In contrast to the adult population, in whom a variety of registries have confirmed the incidence, prevalence, and diagnoses associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD), the epidemiological information on pediatric CKD is currently imprecise and flawed by methodological differences between the various data sources. Obstructive uropathy and congenital aplasia/hypoplasia/dysplasia are responsible for almost one half of all cases of CKD in children, underscoring the fact that a substantial percentage of the pediatric CKD population develops renal insufficiency very early in life. However, there are distinct geographic differences in the reported causes of CKD, in part because of environmental, racial, genetic, and cultural (consanguinity) differences. Furthermore, despite apparently comparable incidence rates, high mortality in countries that lack health care resources results in a low prevalence of CKD in those locations. In countries where renal replacement therapy is readily available, the most favored treatment modality is renal transplantation in all pediatric age groups. Additional efforts to define the epidemiology of pediatric CKD worldwide in a more uniform manner are necessary if a better understanding of the full extent of the problem, areas for study, and the potential impact of intervention is desired.