Three mutations in Plasmodium falciparum yielding increased resistance to pyrimethamine were obtained following treatment with chemical mutagens and selection in presence of pyrimethamine. From parasite clone TM4/8.2 a mutant, TM4/8.2/4.1, was produced which raised pyrimethamine resistance about 500 times and was found to involve an amino acid change in the DHFR-TS enzyme molecule from Ser108 to Asn108. A clone of another isolate, T9/94, yielded a mutant, T9/94/300.300, raising pyrimethamine resistance about 10 times and involving an amino acid change from Ile164 to Met164. However, another mutant from T9/94, T9/94/M1-1(b3), although it raised the pyrimethamine resistance 100 times, did not involve any changes in the coding sequence of the DHFR-TS gene, but resulted in the production of about twice as much DHFR-TS enzyme as the original clone T9/94. No amplification of the DHFR-TS gene was detected. It is concluded that changes in pyrimethamine resistance of malaria parasites may arise in at least 2 ways: (1) by structural changes in the DHFR domain of the DHFR-TS gene (as previously found by other workers); (2) by other changes, possibly affecting the expression of the DHFR-TS gene. The relative importance of these 2 mechanisms in causing resistance in wild populations of P. falciparum is discussed.