Associations between short-term changes in nitrogen dioxide and mortality in Canadian cities

Arch Environ Health. 2004 May;59(5):228-36. doi: 10.3200/AEOH.59.5.228-236.


The association between daily variations in ambient concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and mortality was examined in 12 of Canada's largest cities, using a 19-yr time-series analysis (from 1981-1999). The authors employed parametric statistical methods that are not subject to the recently discovered convergence and error estimation problems of generalized additive models. An increase in the 3-d moving average of NO2 concentrations equivalent to the population-weighted study mean of 22.4 ppb was associated with a 2.25% (t = 4.45) increase in the daily nonaccidental mortality rate and was insensitive to adjustment for ozone, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, coefficient of haze, size-fractionated particulate mass, and the sulfate ion measured on an every-6th-day sampling schedule. The 3-d moving average of NO2 was sensitive to adjustment for fine particulate matter measured daily during the 1998-2000 time period.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Air Pollutants / adverse effects
  • Air Pollutants / analysis*
  • Canada / epidemiology
  • Humans
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Middle Aged
  • Mortality / trends*
  • Nitrogen Dioxide / adverse effects
  • Nitrogen Dioxide / analysis*
  • Urban Population


  • Air Pollutants
  • Nitrogen Dioxide