Objective: To develop a simple, easily administered pencil-and-paper questionnaire to determine the degree to which behavioral patterns play a role in smoking dependence.
Methods: A modified Delphi technique was used to identify initial questions and to eliminate obvious duplications. Phase 2 utilized multiple statistical methods (principal components analysis, cluster analysis, stepwise multiple linear regression, cross tables, Mantel-Haenzel c2-test, and a Gamma test) to evaluate and reduce the number of questions from 18.
Results: These analyses yielded an 11-item questionnaire that can potentially assess behavioral dependence.
Conclusion: It is hoped that the GN-SBQ will assist physicians, health care providers, and tobacco interventionists in identifying aspects of smoking addiction that are behavioral in nature. The need for future research is discussed.