Numerous epidemiological studies have shown that occupational exposure to wood dust can induce several respiratory diseases such as allergic rhinitis, chronic bronchitis, asthma, and sino-nasal adenocarcinoma. However, comparison of the harmful potential of different wood dust species on the basis of epidemiological studies is complicated because in the occupational environment workers are usually exposed to several wood dust species simultaneously. In the present study, we have characterized and compared the effects of two hardwood dusts, beech and teak, and two softwood dusts, pine and spruce, on cytokine and chemokine expression utilizing an in vitro model, murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. The expression patterns of selected cytokines and chemokines were assessed by real-time quantitative PCR and by ELISA. All the tested hardwood and softwood dusts induced TNF-alpha expression and inhibited IL-1beta expression. Similarly, all the wood dusts induced the expression of CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, and CXCL2/3 chemokines and inhibited CCL24 expression. Our results indicate that both hardwood and softwood dusts influence the cytokine and chemokine expression of RAW 264.7 cells. Although some differences could be detected in the magnitude of responses to different wood dust species, the two tested wood dust groups, hardwoods and softwoods, have quite similar effects on cytokine and chemokine expression in RAW 264.7 cell line.