Chemically modified tetracycline prevents the development of septic shock and acute respiratory distress syndrome in a clinically applicable porcine model

Shock. 2005 Oct;24(4):348-56. doi: 10.1097/01.shk.0000180619.06317.2c.


Sepsis causes more than with 215,000 deaths per year in the United States alone. Death can be caused by multiple system organ failure, with the lung, in the form of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), often being the first organ to fail. We developed a chronic porcine model of septic shock and ARDS and hypothesized that blocking the proteases neutrophil elastase (NE) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9) with the modified tetracycline, COL-3, would significantly improve morbidity in this model. Pigs were anesthetized and instrumented for hemodynamic monitoring and were then randomized to one of three groups: control (n = 3), laparotomy only; superior mesenteric artery occlusion (SMA) + fecal blood clot (FC; n = 7), with intraperitoneal placement of a FC; and SMA + FC + COL (n = 5), ingestion of COL-3 12 h before injury. Animals emerged from anesthesia and were monitored and treated with fluids and antibiotics in an animal intensive care unit continuously for 48 h. Serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were sampled and bacterial cultures, MMP-2, MMP-9, NE, and multiple cytokine concentrations were measured. Pigs were reanesthetized and placed on a ventilator when significant lung impairment occurred (PaO2/FiO2 < 250). At necropsy, lung water and histology were assessed. All animals in the SMA + FC group developed septic shock evidenced by a significant fall in arterial blood pressure that was not responsive to fluids. Lung injury typical of ARDS (i.e., a fall in lung compliance and PaO2/FiO2 ratio and a significant increase in lung water) developed in this group. Additionally, there was a significant increase in plasma IL-1 and IL-6 and in BALF IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, NE, and protein concentration in the SMA + FC group. COL-3 treatment prevented septic shock and ARDS and significantly decreased cytokine levels in plasma and BALF. COL-3 treatment also significantly reduced NE activity (P < 0.05) and reduced MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity in BALF by 64% and 34%, respectively, compared with the SMA + FC group. We conclude that prophylactic COL-3 prevented the development of ARDS and unexpectedly also prevented septic shock in a chronic insidious onset animal model of sepsis-induced ARDS. The mechanism of this protection is unclear, as COL-3 inhibited numerous inflammatory mediators. Nevertheless, COL-3 significantly reduced the morbidity in a clinically applicable animal model, demonstrating the possibility that COL-3 may be useful in reducing the morbidity associated with sepsis and ischemia/reperfusion injury in patients.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid
  • Cytokines / biosynthesis
  • Cytokines / metabolism
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Female
  • Inflammation
  • Interleukin-1 / metabolism
  • Interleukin-10 / metabolism
  • Interleukin-6 / metabolism
  • Interleukin-8 / metabolism
  • Leukocyte Elastase / chemistry
  • Lung / metabolism
  • Lung / pathology
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 / metabolism
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 / metabolism
  • Mesenteric Artery, Superior / pathology
  • Models, Chemical
  • Oxygen / metabolism
  • Peptide Hydrolases / metabolism
  • Pulmonary Edema / metabolism
  • Pulmonary Edema / pathology
  • Respiratory Distress Syndrome / complications*
  • Respiratory Distress Syndrome / drug therapy*
  • Sepsis / blood
  • Sepsis / prevention & control*
  • Swine
  • Tetracycline / chemistry*
  • Tetracycline / metabolism
  • Tetracycline / pharmacology*
  • Tetracyclines / chemistry
  • Tetracyclines / pharmacology*
  • Time Factors


  • Cytokines
  • Interleukin-1
  • Interleukin-6
  • Interleukin-8
  • Tetracyclines
  • tetracycline CMT-3
  • Interleukin-10
  • Peptide Hydrolases
  • Leukocyte Elastase
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 2
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 9
  • Tetracycline
  • Oxygen