The evolution of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-specific T cell responses that occurs during the acute and persistent stages of infection remains poorly characterized despite its importance for developing immune interventions for EBV-associated disorders. This study assessed T cell responses to 113 EBV-derived epitopes in 40 subjects with acute or persistent EBV infection. Although no significant differences were seen in the breadth of CD8 and CD4 T cell responses, their magnitude differed significantly over time; acutely infected subjects generated especially strong responses to lytic viral antigens. The cross-sectional shift in immunodominance was also confirmed in subjects followed longitudinally from acute to persistent infection. In addition, human leukocyte antigen-matched siblings with discordant histories of symptomatic EBV infection showed no significant differences in their response patterns, suggesting that symptomatic EBV infection does not lead to unique persistent-stage responses. These data provide an assessment of immunodominance patterns and guidance for developing immunotherapeutic interventions for EBV-associated disorders.