Antidiabetic potential of two novel fatty acid derivatised, N-terminally modified analogues of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP): N-AcGIP(LysPAL16) and N-AcGIP(LysPAL37)

Biol Chem. 2005 Jul;386(7):679-87. doi: 10.1515/BC.2005.079.


Fatty acid derivatisation was used to develop two novel, long-acting, N-terminally modified, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) analogues, N-AcGIP(LysPAL16) and N-AcGIP(LysPAL37). In contrast to GIP, which was rapidly degraded by in vitro incubation with dipeptidylpeptidase IV (DPP IV) (52% intact after 2 h), the analogues remained fully intact for up to 24 h. Both fatty acid-derivatised analogues stimulated cAMP production in GIP receptor Chinese hamster lung (CHL) fibroblasts (EC50 12.1-13.0 nM) and significantly improved in vitro insulin secretion from BRIN-BD11 cells (1.1- to 2.4-fold; p < 0.05 to p < 0.001) compared to control (5.6 mM glucose). Administration of N-AcGIP(LysPAL16) and N-AcGIP(LysPAL37) together with glucose in obese diabetic (ob/ob) mice significantly reduced the glycaemic excursion (1.4- and 1.5-fold, respectively; p < 0.05 to p < 0.01) and improved the insulinotropic response (1.5- and 2.3-fold, respectively; p < 0.01 to p < 0.001) compared to native peptide. Dose-response studies with N-AcGIP(LysPAL37) revealed that even the lowest concentration (6.25 nmol/kg) induced a highly significant decrease (1.4-fold; p < 0.001) in the overall glycaemic excursion, coupled with a significant increase (2.0-fold; p < 0.01) in circulating insulin. Furthermore, basal glucose values remained significantly reduced (p < 0.05) and insulin values increased 24 h following a single injection of N-AcGIP(LysPAL37). The glucose-lowering action of the fatty acid-derivatised peptide was greater than that of N-AcGIP. These data demonstrate that novel fatty acid-derivatised analogues of N-terminally modified AcGIP function as long-acting GIP-receptor agonists, with significant antidiabetic potential.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cricetinae
  • Cyclic AMP / biosynthesis
  • Fatty Acids / chemistry
  • Fatty Acids / pharmacology*
  • Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide / chemistry
  • Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide / pharmacology*
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / chemistry
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / pharmacology*
  • Mice
  • Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization


  • Fatty Acids
  • Hypoglycemic Agents
  • Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide
  • Cyclic AMP