Objective: To investigate, in patients with mild traumatic brain injury, serum concentrations of S-100B and neurone-specific enolase in acute phase and post-concussion symptoms, disabilities and life satisfaction 1 year after the trauma.
Design: Prospective study.
Patients: Eighty-eight patients (age range 18-87 years).
Methods: Blood samples were taken on admission and about 7 hours later. At follow-up 15 +/- 4 months later, the patients filled in questionnaires about symptoms (Rivermead Post Concussion Symptoms), disability (Rivermead Head Injury Follow-up) and life satisfaction (LiSat-11).
Results: Concentrations of S-100B and neurone-specific enolase were regularly increased in the first blood sample. Of the 69 patients participating in the follow-up, 45% reported post-concussion symptom, 48% exhibited disability and 55% were satisfied with "life as a whole". In comparison with the "sick-leave" situation on admission to hospital, 3 patients were on sick-leave at the time of follow-up because of the head trauma. Stepwise forward logistic regression analysis revealed a statistically significant association (p<0.05) between disability and S-100B and dizziness.
Conclusion: In spite of frequent persistent symptoms, disabilities and low levels of life satisfaction, the sick-leave frequency was low at follow-up. The association between S-100B and disability supports the notion that long-term consequences of a mild brain injury may partly be a result of brain tissue injury.