One-year follow-up of mild traumatic brain injury: post-concussion symptoms, disabilities and life satisfaction in relation to serum levels of S-100B and neurone-specific enolase in acute phase

J Rehabil Med. 2005 Sep;37(5):300-5. doi: 10.1080/16501970510032910.


Objective: To investigate, in patients with mild traumatic brain injury, serum concentrations of S-100B and neurone-specific enolase in acute phase and post-concussion symptoms, disabilities and life satisfaction 1 year after the trauma.

Design: Prospective study.

Patients: Eighty-eight patients (age range 18-87 years).

Methods: Blood samples were taken on admission and about 7 hours later. At follow-up 15 +/- 4 months later, the patients filled in questionnaires about symptoms (Rivermead Post Concussion Symptoms), disability (Rivermead Head Injury Follow-up) and life satisfaction (LiSat-11).

Results: Concentrations of S-100B and neurone-specific enolase were regularly increased in the first blood sample. Of the 69 patients participating in the follow-up, 45% reported post-concussion symptom, 48% exhibited disability and 55% were satisfied with "life as a whole". In comparison with the "sick-leave" situation on admission to hospital, 3 patients were on sick-leave at the time of follow-up because of the head trauma. Stepwise forward logistic regression analysis revealed a statistically significant association (p<0.05) between disability and S-100B and dizziness.

Conclusion: In spite of frequent persistent symptoms, disabilities and low levels of life satisfaction, the sick-leave frequency was low at follow-up. The association between S-100B and disability supports the notion that long-term consequences of a mild brain injury may partly be a result of brain tissue injury.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Biomarkers / blood*
  • Brain Injuries / blood
  • Brain Injuries / diagnosis*
  • Brain Injuries / rehabilitation
  • Disability Evaluation
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Middle Aged
  • Neurons / enzymology
  • Personal Satisfaction
  • Phosphopyruvate Hydratase / blood
  • Post-Concussion Syndrome / blood
  • Post-Concussion Syndrome / diagnosis*
  • Post-Concussion Syndrome / rehabilitation
  • Prospective Studies
  • S100 Proteins / blood*
  • Sick Leave


  • Biomarkers
  • S100 Proteins
  • Phosphopyruvate Hydratase