Background: Lung transplantation is an established treatment for end-stage bronchiectasis. A proportion of patients with bronchiectasis have an associated antibody deficiency. This group benefits from immunoglobulin replacement therapy, but the outcome of lung transplantation is not known.
Methods: We conducted a retrospective observational study of all who received a transplant for bronchiectasis at our unit. We compared the survival after transplant, number of infective and rejection episodes, and the change in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1).
Results: Five of the 37 patients identified with bronchiectasis had an antibody deficiency that required immunoglobulin replacement therapy. Actuarial survival was similar in the 2 groups, being 81% at 12 months in the Bronchiectasis Group and 80% in the Antibody Deficiency Group. The FEV1 at 12 months after transplantation was similar in each group, with a predicted mean +/- SD FEV1 of 83.7% +/- 24.2% in those with bronchiectasis and 83.0% +/- 30.4% in those with antibody deficiency as well. The infection and rejection rates in the first year after transplantation were lower in the Antibody Deficiency Group. Infection episodes per 100 patient-days for bronchiectasis alone were 0.90 vs 0.53 and rejection episodes per 100 patient-days were 0.59 vs 0.24.
Conclusions: There was no evidence that transplant recipients with bronchiectasis and antibody deficiency have a worse prognosis than those with bronchiectasis alone.