Neural stem cells in the subventricular zone of adult rodents produce new striatal neurons that may replace those that have died after stroke; however, the neurogenic response has been considered acute and transient, yielding only small numbers of neurons. In contrast, we show herein that striatal neuroblasts are generated without decline at least for 4 months after stroke in adult rats. Neuroblasts formed early or late after stroke either differentiate into mature neurons, which survive for several months, or die through caspase-mediated apoptosis. The directed migration of the new neurons toward the ischemic damage is regulated by stromal cell-derived factor-1alpha and its receptor CXCR4. These results show that endogenous neural stem cells continuously supply the injured adult brain with new neurons, which suggests novel self-repair strategies to improve recovery after stroke.