Multiple myeloma: diagnosis and treatment

Mayo Clin Proc. 2005 Oct;80(10):1371-82. doi: 10.4065/80.10.1371.


Major advances have occurred in our understanding of the biology of multiple myeloma (MM) and in its treatment in the past decade. New diagnostic criteria have been developed, and an international Staging System has replaced the Durle-Salmon Staging System. It is now possible to classify MM as standard risk or high risk on the basis of specific Independent prognostic factors. The role of single and double autologous stem cell transplantation has been clarified by randomized trials. Most importantly, thalidomide, bortezomib, and lenalidomide have emerged as new active agents and are being incorporated rapidly into the treatment of both newly diagnosed and relapsed MM. The current approach to the diagnosis, prognosis, and management of MM is reviewed.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Algorithms
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / therapeutic use
  • Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use
  • Cyclophosphamide / therapeutic use
  • Dexamethasone / therapeutic use
  • Drug Therapy, Combination
  • Glucocorticoids / therapeutic use
  • Humans
  • Melphalan / therapeutic use
  • Multiple Myeloma / diagnosis*
  • Multiple Myeloma / genetics
  • Multiple Myeloma / surgery
  • Multiple Myeloma / therapy*
  • Prednisone / therapeutic use
  • Prognosis
  • Retreatment
  • Stem Cell Transplantation
  • Thalidomide / therapeutic use
  • Translocation, Genetic


  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents
  • Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating
  • Glucocorticoids
  • Thalidomide
  • Dexamethasone
  • Cyclophosphamide
  • Melphalan
  • Prednisone