We have combined high-resolution two-dimensional (2-D) gel electrophoresis with mass spectrometry with the aim of identifying proteins represented in the 2-D gel database of Drosophila melanogaster mitochondria. First, we purified mitochondria from third instar Drosophila larvae and constructed a high-resolution 2-D gel database containing 231 silver-stained polypeptides. Next, we carried out preparative 2-D PAGE to isolate some of the polypeptides and characterize them by MALDI-TOF analysis. Using this strategy, we identified 66 mitochondrial spots in the database, and in each case confirmed their identity by MALDI-TOF/TOF analysis. In addition, we generated antibodies against two of the mitochondrial proteins as tools for characterizing the organelle.