Centrosomes, spindle pole bodies, and related structures in other organisms are a morphologically diverse group of organelles that share a common ability to nucleate and organize microtubules and are thus referred to as microtubule organizing centers or MTOCs. Features associated with MTOCs include organization of mitotic spindles, formation of primary cilia, progression through cytokinesis, and self-duplication once per cell cycle. Centrosomes bind more than 100 regulatory proteins, whose identities suggest roles in a multitude of cellular functions. In fact, recent work has shown that MTOCs are required for several regulatory functions including cell cycle transitions, cellular responses to stress, and organization of signal transduction pathways. These new liaisons between MTOCs and cellular regulation are the focus of this review. Elucidation of these and other previously unappreciated centrosome functions promises to yield exciting scientific discovery for some time to come.