Despite recent improvement, significant racial disparities in outcome still persist after renal transplantation among African American patients in the United States. This study evaluated the association of race and ethnicity with allograft outcomes in a French population of 952 Caucasian (Cauc) patients and 140 African European (AE) patients who underwent renal transplantation in our center between 1987 and 2003. Demographic characteristics were similar for the two cohorts other than cause of end-stage renal failure (more hypertension among AE and more polycystic kidney disease among Cauc) and cold ischemia time (significantly longer for AE). Immunosuppressive treatment was comparable between groups. There were no significant differences between AE and Cauc in the incidence of acute rejection (31% vs. 30%). At 5 years post-transplant, patient survival (93% vs. 92%), graft survival (83% in both groups) and graft function (creatinine clearance 48 mL/min vs. 45 mL/min) were also similar among the AE and Cauc patients. We demonstrate that ethnic origin does not affect outcome after renal transplantation in France. Therefore, differences observed in the United States cannot be only related to immunologic or pharmacologic factors. The results of renal transplantation in patients of African origin could be improved with universal immunosuppressive drug coverage.