Candida dubliniensis was first described as a novel species in 1995. This organism is very closely related to the important human yeast pathogen, Candida albicans. However, despite the very close phylogenetic relationship between C. albicans and C. dubliniensis and the fact that they share a large number of phenotypic traits, epidemiological and virulence model data indicate that the former is a far more successful pathogen. In order to investigate the molecular basis of the lower virulence of C. dubliniensis recent comparative genomic hybridisation studies have revealed the absence and divergence of specific genes implicated in candidal virulence. Data from the C. dubliniensis genome sequencing project will allow a complete comparison between the genomes of the two species to be performed and thus enhance our understanding of candidal virulence and how virulence has evolved in Candida species.