The serine-threonine kinase Akt also known as protein kinase B is one of the most studied molecules. In addition to the important role in carcinogenesis, Akt is a major regulator of carbohydrate metabolism. Akt mediates insulin-dependent glucose uptake in insulin-sensitive tissues. Recent evidence underscores the importance of Akt for regulation of beta-cell mass and function. This review summarizes current findings concerning the molecular mechanisms, downstream signaling pathways, and critical components involved in regulation of beta-cell mass and function by Akt. The results of these observations suggest that elucidation of critical downstream effectors of this signaling pathway could generate promising molecules as a potential target to induce proliferation and survival of beta-cells.