Rapid progress in studies on flower development has resulted in refining the classical 'ABC model' into a new 'ABCDE model' to explain properly the regulation of floral organ identity. Conservation of E-function for flower organ identity among the dicotyledonous (dicot) plants has been revealed. However, its conservation in monocotyledonous (monocot) plants remains largely unknown. Here, we show the conservation of E-function in rice (Oryza sativaL.) by characterizing tissue culture-induced mutants of two MADS-box genes, OsMADS1and OsMADS5, which form a subclade within the well-supported clade of SEP-genes (E-function) phylogeny. Severe loss-of-function mutations of OsMADS1cause complete homeotic conversion of organs (lodicules, stamens, and carpels) of three inner whorls into lemma- and palea-like structures. Such basic deformed structure is reiterated along with the pedicel at the center of the same floret, indicating the loss of determinacy of the flower meristem. These phenotypes resemble the phenotypes caused by mutations of the dicot E-class genes, such as the Arabidopsis SEP123(SEPALLATA1/2/3) and the petunia FBP2(Floral Binding Protein 2), suggesting that OsMADS1play a very similar role in rice to that of defined E-class genes in dicot plants. In case of the loss-of-function mutation of OsMADS5, no defect in either panicles or vegetative organs was observed. These results demonstrate that OsMADS1clearly possesses E-function, and so, E-function is fundamentally conserved between dicot plants and rice, a monocot model plant.