Isolated scleritis (without keratitis) associated with infections is uncommon, and correct diagnosis and appropriate therapy for it are often delayed. Six patients with infection-associated scleritis were seen at our institution between May 1983 and May 1990 (these patients represented 4.6% of all patients with scleritis [six of 130 patients] in that period). Three of these cases were associated with systemic infections. One was associated with syphilis, one was associated with tuberculosis, and one was associated with toxocariasis. Three cases resulted from local infections. One was associated with infection with Proteus mirabilis, one was associated with infection with herpes zoster virus, and one was associated with infection with Aspergillus. The Aspergillus infection developed after trauma and the P. mirabilis-induced infection developed after strabismus surgical procedures. Four of the six cases were initially misdiagnosed and inappropriately managed. Correct diagnosis was made seven days to four years after onset of symptoms. Review of systems, scleral biopsy, culture, and laboratory investigation were used to make the diagnosis. Differential diagnosis of scleritis must include infective agents.