Inhalational and dermal exposures during spray application of biocides

Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2005;208(5):357-72. doi: 10.1016/j.ijheh.2005.04.006.


Data on inhalational and potential dermal exposures during spray application of liquid biocidal products were generated. On the one hand, model experiments with different spraying devices using fluorescent tracers were carried out to investigate the influence of parameters relevant to the exposure (e.g. spraying equipment, nozzle size, direction of application). On the other hand, measurements were performed at selected workplaces (during disinfection operations in food and feed areas; pest control operations for private, public and veterinary hygiene; wood protection and antifouling applications) after application of biocidal products such as Empire 20, Responsar SC, Omexan-forte, Actellic, Perma-forte; Fendona SC, Pyrethrum mist; CBM 8, Aldekol Des 03, TAD CID, Basileum, Basilit. The measurements taken in the model rooms demonstrated dependence of the inhalation exposure on the type of spraying device used, in the following order: "spraying with low pressure" < "airless spraying" < "fogging" indicating that the particle diameter of the released spray droplets is the most important parameter. In addition inhalation exposure was lowest when the spraying direction was downward. Also for the potential dermal exposure, the spraying direction was of particular importance: overhead spraying caused the highest contamination of body surfaces. The data of inhalational and potential dermal exposures gained through workplace measurements showed considerable variation. During spraying procedures with low-pressure equipments, dose rates of active substances inhaled by the operators ranged from 7 to 230 microg active substance (a.s.)/h. An increase in inhaled dose rates (6-33 mg a.s./h) was observed after use of high application volumes/time unit during wood protection applications indoors. Spraying in the veterinary sector using medium-pressure sprayers led to inhaled dose rates between 2 and 24mga.s./h. The highest inhaled dose rates were measured during fogging (114 mg a.s./h) and after-high-pressure applications in the antifouling sector (110-300 mg a.s./h). The potential dermal exposure of spray operators was lowest (dose rates from 0.2 to 7 mg a.s./h) in the areas of food and feed disinfection and private and public hygiene during spraying with low-pressure devices. During fogging, wood protection and antifouling applications, high-potential dermal exposures of the operators were determined. Dermal dose rates varied between 100 and 34,000 mg a.s./h.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Air Pollutants, Occupational / analysis*
  • Disinfection
  • Environmental Monitoring / instrumentation
  • Environmental Monitoring / methods
  • Food Industry
  • Humans
  • Inhalation Exposure*
  • Models, Theoretical
  • Occupational Exposure*
  • Particle Size
  • Pesticides / analysis*
  • Skin
  • Wood


  • Air Pollutants, Occupational
  • Pesticides