Molecular mechanisms of lipid-induced insulin resistance in muscle, liver and vasculature

Diabetes Obes Metab. 2005 Nov;7(6):621-32. doi: 10.1111/j.1463-1326.2004.00439.x.


Increased body fat content correlates with insulin resistance and is a key feature of type 2 diabetes. Excessive intake of fat results in deposition of lipids not only in fat tissue but also in skeletal muscle and liver. Subsequently, both plasma and intracellular concentrations of free fatty acids and their metabolites rise and activate signal transduction pathways, which will induce inflammation and impair insulin signalling. Furthermore, elevated circulating lipids impair endothelial function and fibrinolysis, which contributes to the development of vascular disease. Thus, therapeutic strategies aiming at reduction of (intracellular) lipid availability in skeletal muscle and liver and pharmacological modulation of the signalling pathways activated by increased lipid stores represent promising targets for future treatment of insulin resistance and prevention of its complications. This review focuses on the effects of increased lipid availability on the regulation of glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle and liver as well as on vascular function.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / physiopathology
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / prevention & control
  • Fatty Acids, Nonesterified / physiology
  • Humans
  • Insulin Resistance / physiology*
  • Lipids / physiology*
  • Liver / physiology*
  • Mitochondria, Muscle / physiology
  • Muscle, Skeletal / physiology*


  • Fatty Acids, Nonesterified
  • Lipids