Pharmacist impact on clinical outcomes in a diabetes disease management program via collaborative practice

Ann Pharmacother. 2005 Nov;39(11):1828-32. doi: 10.1345/aph.1G356. Epub 2005 Oct 11.

Abstract

Background: Clinical outcomes resulting from pharmaceutical care have been incompletely addressed in the diabetes population. We conducted a retrospective study evaluating clinical outcomes in a diabetes disease management program in which clinical pharmacists possessed collaborative practice agreements.

Objective: To evaluate changes in clinical outcomes for patients enrolled in a pharmacist-coordinated diabetes management program.

Methods: Medical records of 157 patients enrolled in the diabetes management program between June 2003 and April 2004 were retrospectively reviewed. Data collection included baseline and follow-up values for hemoglobin A(1C) (A1C) and lipids as well as frequency of adherence to preventive care, including annual foot and eye examinations and daily aspirin therapy.

Results: For patients with both baseline and follow-up data, the mean A1C reduction was 1.6% (n = 109; p < 0.001). For patients with an initial A1C of > or =8.5%, the mean reduction was 2.7% (n = 57; p < 0.001). The percentage of patients with A1C < or =7% increased from 19% at baseline to 50% at follow-up (p < 0.001). The mean low-density lipoprotein (LDL) reduction observed was 16 mg/dL (n = 73; NS) and the percentage of patients with LDL values < or =100 mg/dL increased from 30% at baseline to 56% at follow-up (p < 0.001). The frequency of microalbumin screening increased by 27% (p < 0.001), and the number of patients with annual eye and foot examinations increased by 27% (p < 0.05) and 15% (p < 0.05), respectively. The percentage of patients who had a positive microalbumin test and were taking a renal protective agent rose 19% from baseline to follow-up (NS). The percentage of patients taking daily aspirin increased from 42% at baseline to 80% at follow-up (p < 0.01).

Conclusions: The pharmacist-coordinated diabetes management program was effective in improving clinical markers for enrolled patients. Significant improvements were observed in A1C and LDL values as well as the frequency of adherence to preventive care.

MeSH terms

  • Albuminuria / diagnosis
  • Albuminuria / drug therapy
  • Cholesterol, HDL / blood
  • Cooperative Behavior*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / diagnosis
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / drug therapy*
  • Drug Utilization Review / methods
  • Drug Utilization Review / statistics & numerical data
  • Female
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A / analysis
  • Humans
  • Lipoproteins, LDL / blood
  • Male
  • Medical Records / statistics & numerical data
  • Middle Aged
  • Multicenter Studies as Topic
  • Office Visits / statistics & numerical data
  • Outcome Assessment, Health Care / methods
  • Pharmacists*
  • Physicians, Family
  • Professional Role*
  • Quality of Health Care / standards
  • Quality of Health Care / trends
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Time Factors
  • Treatment Outcome

Substances

  • Cholesterol, HDL
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A
  • Lipoproteins, LDL