Microvessel density (MVD) has been associated with progression of prostate cancer. Although basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) is a known endothelial mitogen, the prognostic role of bFGF and its receptor FGFR-1 in prostate cancer has been controversial. The aim of our study was to examine the tissue distribution and prognostic significance of bFGF, FGFR-1, and microvascular proliferation. Sections from 104 radical prostatectomy specimens were examined by factor VIII/Ki-67 staining for proliferating capillary index (PCI) and MVD, and tissue microarray sections were immunostained for bFGF and FGFR-1. Increased PCI (median 0.49%) was related to strong stromal expression of bFGF (P=0.003) but was without prognostic impact. Strong bFGF staining was associated with well-differentiated tumors, no capsular penetration, low serum-prostate-specific antigen (s-PSA), low tumor cell proliferation, and increased time to biochemical failure (P=0.007), and was of independent prognostic importance in multivariate survival analysis. bFGF expression in vessels was associated with low MVD (P=0.0003). In contrast, strong tumor cell FGFR-1 expression was related to high preoperative s-PSA. Thus, increased stromal and vessel bFGF was associated with less aggressive tumors. Our findings indicate a complex relationship between bFGF/FGFR-1 expression and prognosis of prostate cancer. Vascular proliferation revealed no prognostic impact in this study.