Randomized controlled clinical trial of Blood Glucose Awareness Training (BGAT III) in Switzerland and Germany

J Behav Med. 2005 Dec;28(6):587-94. doi: 10.1007/s10865-005-9026-3. Epub 2005 Oct 13.


Although both diabetes and the efficacy of medical management are international issues, psycho-educational interventions might be culturally bound. Blood Glucose Awareness Training (BGAT) is a psycho-educational program for patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. It is focused on improving recognition and management of extreme blood glucose levels, and is the best documented American psycho-educational program for this purpose. A randomized controlled clinical trial of BGAT's long-term benefits in a non-American setting has been lacking. One hundred and eleven adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus from Switzerland and Germany participated. After a 6 months baseline assessment, subjects were randomly assigned to receive either 2 months of BGAT (n = 56) or a physician-guided self-help control intervention (n = 55). BGAT improved recognition of low (p = 0.008), high (p = .03), and overall blood glucose (p = 0.001), and reduced frequency of severe hypoglycemia (p = 0.04), without compromising metabolic control. BGAT reduced both the external locus of control (p < 0.02) and fear of hypoglycemia (p < 0.02). BGAT was efficacious in reducing adverse clinical events and achieving clinically desirable goals in a European, as well as American setting.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Analysis of Variance
  • Awareness*
  • Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring* / psychology
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / blood*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / psychology*
  • Fear
  • Female
  • Germany
  • Humans
  • Hypoglycemia / prevention & control
  • Hypoglycemia / psychology
  • Internal-External Control
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Patient Education as Topic / methods*
  • Quality of Life
  • Switzerland