Excision repair cross-complementation group 1 (ERCC1) is a highly conserved protein and an essential member of the nucleotide excision repair pathway. DNA repair is an important mechanism for resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy. Previous studies have shown that ERCC1 gene expression is associated with clinical outcome to platinum chemotherapy in a variety of cancers. Recently, 2 common polymorphisms in the ERCC1 gene have been described. The first is a single nucleotide polymorphism at codon 188 of the ERCC1 gene that causes a C-->T change but codes for the same amino acid, asparagine. This polymorphism may be associated with differential ERCC1 gene expression. The second is also a signal nucleotide polymorphism in the 3'-untranslated region and may affect MRNA stability. We hypothesized that these 2 polymorphisms may be associated with clinical outcome to platinum-based chemotherapy. We assessed the relationship between these ERCC1 gene polymorphism and clinical outcome to platinum-based chemotherapy in 106 patients with advanced refractory colorectal cancer. We found a significant associated between the ERCC1 codon 118 polymorphism and clinical outcome. Patients with the C/C genotype had a median survival of 15.3 months (95% CI, 6.0-12.1) and 11.1 months (95% CI, 5.8-16.2) for those with C/T and T/T genotypes, respectively. The ERCC1 codon 118 polymorphism may be a useful predictor of clinical outcome in advanced colorectal cancer patients treated with platinum-based chemotherapy.