Predominance of three NF-kappaB binding sites in the long terminal repeat region of HIV Type 1 subtype C isolates from Zambia

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2005 Oct;21(10):901-6. doi: 10.1089/aid.2005.21.901.


Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the world, with almost 46 million people infected globally. HIV-1 subtype C accounts for 55% of these infections. In Zambia, the majority of HIV-1 infections are subtype C. However, to its north most countries have non-subtype C as the most predominant HIV-1 subtype while to its south most of them are predominantly subtype C. The aim of this study was to determine the subtype distribution and to analyze the long terminal repeat (LTR) region of HIV-1 isolates from the northern part of Zambia. We amplified as well as directly sequenced the LTR, gag, and env regions of 78 HIV-1 peripheral blood samples from adult Zambians. Our results show 95% (74/78) of our isolates were HIV-1 subtype C. Furthermore, of the subtype C samples analyzed across the LTR, 61% (25/41) carried 3 NF-kappaB signature binding site sequences.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Base Sequence
  • Binding Sites
  • Genes, env
  • Genes, gag
  • HIV Infections / virology*
  • HIV Long Terminal Repeat*
  • HIV-1 / genetics*
  • HIV-1 / isolation & purification
  • Humans
  • NF-kappa B / classification
  • NF-kappa B / metabolism*
  • Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid
  • Zambia


  • NF-kappa B