Flow cytometric DNA index and S-phase fraction in breast cancer in relation to other prognostic variables and to clinical outcome

Acta Oncol. 1992;31(2):157-65. doi: 10.3109/02841869209088897.


One frequently used classification of flow cytometric DNA ploidy status (diploid versus nondiploid) was compared with a division into seven ploidy classes based on DNA index (DI) and number of cell populations (hypodiploid, diploid, near-hyperdiploid, hyperdiploid, tetraploid, hypertetraploid, and multiploid). The latter ploidy classification showed a better correlation with prognosis and other prognostic factors (i.e., lymph node involvement, estrogen and progesterone receptor status, and S-phase fraction). The improvement in correlation was mainly due to the identification of near-hyperdiploid cases (DI 1.00-1.14) which could be combined with the diploid cases to form a group with favourable prognosis. In contrast to cases with a small increase in DNA content (near-hyperdiploid), those with a small decrease of DNA content (hypodiploid) manifested a more aggressive disease. In multivariate analysis, S-phase fraction (SPF) was a more important prognostic factor than both the improved or the conventional ploidy classification.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Breast Neoplasms / chemistry
  • Breast Neoplasms / genetics*
  • Breast Neoplasms / pathology
  • Cathepsin D / analysis
  • DNA, Neoplasm / analysis*
  • Female
  • Flow Cytometry
  • Humans
  • Menopause
  • Middle Aged
  • Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality
  • Ploidies*
  • Prognosis
  • Receptors, Estrogen / analysis
  • Receptors, Progesterone / analysis
  • S Phase / genetics*
  • Survival Analysis


  • DNA, Neoplasm
  • Receptors, Estrogen
  • Receptors, Progesterone
  • Cathepsin D