Many bioactive bone cements were developed for total hip replacement and found to bond with bone directly. However, the mechanical properties at the bone/bone cement interface under load bearing are not fully understood. In this study, a bioactive bone cement, which consists of strontium-containing hydroxyapatite (Sr-HA) powder and bisphenol-alpha-glycidyl dimethacrylate (Bis-GMA)-based resin, was evaluated in rabbit hip replacement for 6 months, and the mechanical properties of interfaces of cancellous bone/Sr-HA cement and cortical bone/Sr-HA cement were investigated by nanoindentation. The results showed that Young's modulus (17.6+/-4.2 GPa) and hardness (987.6+/-329.2 MPa) at interface between cancellous bone and Sr-HA cement were significantly higher than those at the cancellous bone (12.7+/-1.7 GPa; 632.7+/-108.4 MPa) and Sr-HA cement (5.2+/-0.5 GPa; 265.5+/-39.2 MPa); whereas Young's modulus (6.3+/-2.8 GPa) and hardness (417.4+/-164.5 MPa) at interface between cortical bone and Sr-HA cement were significantly lower than those at cortical bone (12.9+/-2.2 GPa; 887.9+/-162.0 MPa), but significantly higher than Sr-HA cement (3.6+/-0.3 GPa; 239.1+/-30.4 MPa). The results of the mechanical properties of the interfaces were supported by the histological observation and chemical composition. Osseointegration of Sr-HA cement with cancellous bone was observed. An apatite layer with high content of calcium and phosphorus was found between cancellous bone and Sr-HA cement. However, no such apatite layer was observed at the interface between cortical bone and Sr-HA cement. And the contents of calcium and phosphorus of the interface were lower than those of cortical bone. The mechanical properties indicated that these two interfaces were diffused interfaces, and cancellous bone or cortical bone was grown into Sr-HA cement 6 months after the implantation.