Hyperventilation syndrome is frequent in adults. There are only very few and very ancient publications in children. Diagnosis is sometimes difficult, because the symptoms often mimic those of organic diseases. Hyperventilation syndrome and organic diseases, especially asthma, often coincide. Intensive efforts should be made to diagnose hyperventilation syndrome at an early stage because this will prevent stigmatization and fixation of symptoms and disease, and also prevent children from undergoing unnecessary medical examinations and therapies. The authors review the literature about hyperventilation syndrome in children.